Hello friends, in today’s article we see the classification of securities from chapter 5 of the Security Analysis book. In this chapter, the author explains how people classify securities and how they wrong and the author gives the specific reason and accurate classification.
Classification of Securities from chapter 5 of Security Analysis book:
In this, the author gives the how the grouping of securities is mention by people
Conventional Grouping of Securities:
So these securities grouped in two parts i.e. Bond and Stocks
In stocks contain two stocks one is preferred stocks and the other are common stocks.
So we all know those are bonds and the bondholder has the first claim on the company.
If they don’t get the interest on that bond then they have the first claim on the company Asset.
But those are stocks holders they assume that whatever the profits go on that basis they get the maximum profits on shares. (Classification of Securities)
If the shares go down or the company files for bankrupt then they lose the all money because those are bondholders who take the first claim on the company asset.
So the author says, this conventional grouping of securities is not in the right way.
So for the above conventional groups, the author gives the three objections.
- Preferred Stocks is grouped with common stocks (diagram image) instead that they have to group with bond.
Because Preferred stocks get the fixed income, so they one side they are a technical legal partner of a company but actually, they are like bondholder, then that type of results they got also.
This means they can not participate in the profits of the company (dividends), which means they get what is fixed, on that preferred stocks, that much amount only get them. (Classification of Securities)
2. Another problem is people compare the Bond with safety, but this is a big mistake.
So you can say, bond as a whole instrument because they have the first claim on company asset.
Safety does not depend on because they are bonds, it depends on this the comapanies asset that defeats the obligation of the company ( means beat the bond interest payment and other companies problems)
so this point includes the real safety not on this to buy the bond and stay safe is not happen.
Because, if companies don’t have earnings and their asset not capable to pay the bond interest so without that bond is not a safe investment.
3. Title is not used rightly for accuracy purposes, saying anything to any securities just like the following example.
Preferred stocks look like stocks but actually, they work like bond and other deviation also present in financial instrument list like Convertible bond, purchase margin, Warrant, Participant preferred stocks, Non Voting stocks. so this all deviation and also other no voting stocks not we are put in this list that above mentions image, and they put in common stocks but they don’t work like that. (Classification of Securities)
Participant preferred stocks, so these are preferred stocks but we can’t put in preferred stocks, because they are participants.
So the author says, ” this all above classification is not the right way.”
So whatever the characteristics of financial instruments, they are not divided on their characterists.
then the author gives their own Classification.
So they divide them into three classes:
1. Class I (Fixed-value type)
2. Class II (Variable-Value type)
3. Class III ( Common Stock type)
- Class I ( Fixed-Value type): In this class, include the high-grade bond and preferred stocks.
- Class II ( Variable-Value type): In this class includes two types A) Well Protected issues with profit possibilities B) Inadequately protected issues.
A) Well Protected issues with profit possibilities: in this, the issue is well protected but has profit possibilities.
so that’s why they are variable values, e.g. High-Grade bond, Convertable bond.
B) Inadequately Protected Issues: In this have the profit, but they are not fully protected they have Inadequately protection issues, for example, lower-grade bonds or preferred stocks. (Classification of Securities)
So they have the profits chance because they are very cheap in price.
3. Common Stocks type: In this include share (stocks) that we talk about almost every time.
So now let’s talk about the advantages and disadvantages of these all classes.
- Class I, in this the owner’s main purpose is the principle of safety and interest safety and we want steady income from these securities.
- In Class II, the principle value changes regularly, so that why they have significance. so let’s see type A: in this, you get the safety and you have another possibility is conversion so that you can make a profit in that. let’s see type B: In this, your loss may be happening, in lots of forms and you also get lots of gain on principle.
- In class III, In this compare with Class 2 type B
so in this difference is those are class II type B have the priority as compare to Class III and they have some protection in class II type B.
Another difference is those are Class II and type B have the profit possibilities, and in this, you get the substantial profit, so but class II type B have the limits so but in Class III in common stocks there is no limit on profits as compare to the class II type B.
So other says, ” those securities that have the characteristics of the common stock, they include in class three, whatever they name are, whatever those are like, common stocks or bonds or convertible bonds or any other financial instruments. (Classification of Securities)
lastly, the author says,” Do not classify securities on the basis of the title of the issue, but the practical significance of its specific terms, and status to the owner.”
So this is all about the classification of securities from chapter 5 of the security analysis book.